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Application and issuance Of Canadian Passport
The issuance of passports falls under the Royal Prerogative. They are issued, in the name of the reigning Canadian monarch (as expressed in the passport note), according to the Canadian Passport Order. This Order in Council specifies grounds for which Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) can issue or renew a passport.
Under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, all Canadian citizens have the right to enter Canada. There is a requirement for a Canadian citizen to use a Canadian passport when entering Canada by air. Since November 10, 2016, under the new visa regulations all visa-free passport holders (except for U.S. citizens and nationals) are required to apply for an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) before boarding a flight to Canada.
As the eTA is used for the sole purpose of immigration screening for non-Canadian visitors entering Canada on a temporary basis, all Canadian citizens are automatically barred from applying the eTA. Hence the passport requirement is in place, because a Canadian citizen who travels on a visa-free, non-Canadian passport will be prevented from boarding the commercial flight to Canada unless he or she can present a valid Canadian passport during check-in.The only exceptions to this rule are for a Canadian citizen travelling on a U.S. passport, as Americans do not need an eTA to enter Canada, or when a Canadian citizen travelling on an eTA-required passport enters Canada by sea or through one of the land ports of entry from the U.S.
Canadians in Canada can submit their applications in person through a passport office, a Service Canada location, a Canada Post receiving agent, or can submit their applications by mail. Canadians in the U.S. or Bermuda can apply only by mail. Canadians living in other countries or territories are required to apply through the nearest Canadian diplomatic posts abroad. Expedited services (urgent, express and standard pick-ups) are only available through a passport office in Canada.
Guarantor of identity
Canadian passport issuing system is modelled after the United Kingdom, where all first-time passport applications are required to be “countersigned” by a person who works in a recognized profession.Australia and New Zealand have similar policies. The use of a guarantor is to serve “as a security measure in the entitlement process and as a point of departure for the future investigation of statements made on the application form”.
Rules regarding the eligibility of guarantors were last updated on August 12, 2013. For passport applicants in Canada, only a Canadian passport holder can be a guarantor. For Canadian citizens living abroad who do not have a Canadian guarantor, a non-Canadian guarantor who works in a licensed profession may be used for application, such as a dentist, medical doctor, judge, lawyer, notary public, pharmacist, police officer, veterinarian, or sitting officer for a financial institution.
The fee (since July 1, 2013) for a standard adult passport issued in Canada is $120 for a five-year passport or $160 for a ten-year passport, and outside of Canada is $190 and $260 respectively. The fee for a five-year passport for a child under 16 is $57 if issued in Canada, and $100 outside of Canada. Additional fees are levied for urgent service or replacement of a lost or stolen passport. All fees are payable in Canadian dollars.
Refusal and revocation of passports
IRCC may revoke a passport or refuse to issue or renew a passport on grounds set out in the Canadian Passport Order, including such grounds as failure to submit a complete application, misrepresentation in obtaining a passport, and criminality. However, whether a Canadian passport may be revoked or refused on the basis of national security concerns has been questioned. See Denial of passport to Abdurahman Khadem.
Types of passports
Before 1947, there were two types of passports: those issued to people who were born British subjects (navy blue cover) and those issued to people naturalized as British subjects (red cover).
Today, there are five types of Canadian passports:
- Regular Passport (navy cover)
- These documents are issued to citizens for occasional travel, such as vacations and business trips. They contain 36 pages (29 pages available for visa labels and stamps). They can be issued to adults (age 16 years and older) with a validity of 5 or 10 years or children under 16 with a validity of 5 years.
- Temporary Passport (white cover)
- These are issued to Canadian citizens outside Canada who require passports but their regular passport application is being processed. This passport contains 8 pages and is valid between six months and one year.
- Emergency Travel Document (1 page)
- Emergency travel documents are one-use documents issued to Canadians for direct return to their home country, or to the nearest Canadian diplomatic mission where full passport services are offered. The document contains details of the person, photo, travel details and expiry date of the document.
- Special Passport (green cover)
- These are issued pursuant to the Order Respecting the Issuance of Diplomatic and Special Passports to people representing the Canadian government on official business, including Privy Councillors, Members of Parliament, provincial cabinet members, public servants, citizens nominated as official non-diplomatic delegates and Canadian Forces members who are posted abroad. Since January 2009 special passports have been issued as electronic passports, in preparation of the full implementation of the ePassport program.
- Diplomatic Passport (maroon cover)
- These are issued pursuant to the Order Respecting the Issuance of Diplomatic and Special Passports to Canadian diplomats, top ranking government officials (including lieutenant governors and commissioners of territories), diplomatic couriers, and private citizens nominated as official diplomatic delegates. Since January 2009 diplomatic passports have been issued as electronic passports, in preparation of the full implementation of the ePassport program.
Regular passports are deep navy blue, with the Royal Arms of Canada emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The words “PASSPORT•PASSEPORT” and the international e-passport symbol ()are inscribed below the coat of arms, and “CANADA” above. The bilingual cover is indicative of the textual portions of Canadian passports being printed in both English and French, Canada’s two official languages. The standard passport contains 36 pages, with 29 available for entry/exit stamps and visas. The size dimensions of a closed Canadian passport are 3.5″ (width) and 5″ (height).
New security features, similar to those on banknotes, have been added with increasing frequency since 2001. Microprinting, holographic images, UV-visible imaging, watermarks and other details have been implemented, particularly on the photo page. As well, the photo is now digitally printed directly on the paper (in both standard and UV-reactive ink); previously, the actual photo had been laminated inside the document.
- Photo of the passport holder
- Type (P)
- Issuing Country (listed as “CAN” for “Canada”)
- Passport No.
- Given Names
- Nationality (Canadian/Canadienne)
- Date of Birth
- Place of Birth (the city and three-letter country code are listed, even if born inside Canada)
- Note: Province or State is required on the application form, if applicable, but is not listed in the passport.
- Date of Issue
- Issuing Authority
- Date of Expiry
The information page ends with the Machine Readable Zone.
From 2002 until May 2015, all Canadian passports contained two signature spaces: one is on the data page where a scanned signature is printed along with other personal details, the other is a blank signature block on page 3. After the applicants have received the passport, those over 16 must also sign in the signature block in ink
Since May 2015, the passport bearer’s scanned signature has not been printed on the data page. Adult applicants, however, must still sign page 3 in the passport book when they receive it.
On August 24, 2017 the Canadian government announced that it would implement procedures for Canadians who wish to have their sex given as X (unspecified) on Canadian passports, which is one of the three permitted sex designations for machine-readable passports along with M (male) and F (female) specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization. As an interim measure until IRCC are able to print passports with X sex designations, effective August 31, 2017 IRCC offers passports with a note on the Observations page indicating that the passport holder should be identified as X rather than the printed sex designation on the data pag
The passports contain a note from the issuing authority addressed to the authorities of all other states, identifying the bearer as a citizen of that state and requesting that they be allowed to pass and be treated according to international norms. The textual portions of Canadian passports are printed in English and French, the official languages of Canada. The note inside of Canadian passports states:
- “The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada requests, in the name of Her Majesty the Queen, all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass freely, without delay or hindrance, and to afford the bearer such assistance and protection as may be necessary.”
Place of birth
The place of birth is inscribed under the following format: CITYNAME UTO, whereas “UTO” is the ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of the country of birth. The first-level administrative country subdivisions of birth, such as the Canadian province or the U.S. state, is not mentioned as a part of place of birth, so Canadian citizens born in Portland, Maine or Portland, Oregon can have the same inscription as place of birth: PORTLAND USA. Exceptions to this format are listed below.
A passport applicant may request, in writing, that IRCC to not list the place of birth (city and country) – or country of birth – on their data page, by filling out PPTC 077. The applicant must indicate his or her awareness that omitting this information could cause difficulties at international entry points or when applying for visas.
Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan
In response to the Chinese government’s modification of requirements for the issuance of visas to Canadian citizens born in Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, Canadian passports issued to Canadians born in Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan are now issued only with the place of birth and not the three-letter country code. Chinese visas will no longer be issued to Canadian passport holders whose place of birth is inscribed as Hong Kong HKG, Macau MAC, or TWN.
Since April 1976, the policy has been that Canadian citizens born in Jerusalem have their birthplace identified only by the city’s name, with no national designation, due to the unresolved legal status of Jerusalem.
Canadian citizens born prior to May 14, 1948 may have their birthplace identified as Palestine if they were born in what was the British Mandate of Palestine (including Jerusalem).
In September 2003, Le Devoir printed a piece calling on Passport Canada to give individual Canadians the choice of which official language appeared first in their passports, English or French. The Passport Office claimed that this was not allowed under international norms, but it was shown that Belgian passport applications asked Belgian citizens which of their country’s three official languages (Dutch, French or German) should appear first in their passports.
In 2008, Passport Canada announced that it would be issuing electronic passports to Canadian travellers starting in 2012. The e-passport will have an electronic chip encoded with the bearer’s name, gender, and date and place of birth and a digital portrait of their face.
On April 7, 2010, Passport Canada announced that in 2012, Canada will begin issuing electronic passports, or ePassports, to all its citizens. Passport Canada states that “the use of ePassports will allow Canada to follow international standards in the field of passport security to protect the nation’s borders and maintain the ease of international travel that Canadians currently enjoy. At the same time, Passport Canada will start offering the option of a 10-year validity period as well as the current 5-year validity period.”
In September 2011, Passport Canada announced that the electronic passport would be ready by the end of 2012, however this was pushed back to 2013 when the organization found significant delay because of an increase in passport applications for revised entry policies to the United States in late 2000s and a lengthy consultation process was needed to survey public reactions to the new passport changes.
All Canadian passports issued on or after July 1, 2013 have been ePassports.
All ePassports are issued with 36 pages as opposed to the previous choice of 24 or 48 pages.
Proposed online application process
In 2015, IRCC (then known as CIC) planned to make moderation to the passport renewal system by integrating the passport issuance platform with its Global Case Management System (GCMS), a consolidated IT system for citizenship and immigration applications.
Under the proposed system modeled after New Zealand passport holders would no longer need to return their old passports to CIC for cancellation, but can instead apply for a new passport online while keeping the old documents before they receive the new ones. Instead of returning the old passports, applicants would be asked to cut the corners of these documents “through an honour system”.
The new process was expected to be available in November 2015, however the plan was cancelled in October when the use of GCMS for passport applications was temporarily suspended due to numerous security glitches in the system. IRCC permanently suspended the use of GCMS for passport applications in February 2016 following an internal audit. GCMS will not be used for passport applications until all risks, which include “Passport Program business requirements”, are identified and secured.
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